Co.Create

The Science Of Storytelling: How Narrative Cuts Through Distraction Like Nothing Else

In the first of a three-part series, author Jonathan Gottschall discusses the science of storytelling--not just escapism, stories have real power to hold human attention and shape our thinking.

Note: This article is included in our year-end storytelling advice round-up.

Humans live in a storm of stories. We live in stories all day long, and dream in stories all night long. We communicate through stories and learn from them. We collapse gratefully into stories after a long day at work. Without personal life stories to organize our experience, our own lives would lack coherence and meaning. Homo sapiens (wise man) is a pretty good definition for our species. But Homo fictus (fiction man) would be about as accurate. Man is the storytelling animal.

When it comes to marketing, a company like Coca-Cola gets this. They know that, deep down, they are much more a story factory than a beverage factory. No matter what they’d like us to believe, Coke’s success isn’t due to some magic in their fizzy syrup water (at least not since they took the actual cocaine out). Coke excels because they’ve been clobbering the opposition in the story wars for more than a century. People want to see themselves in the stories Coke tells. Coke understands that their customer is a member of the species Homo fictus, and that they will succeed or fail based largely on the power of their storytelling.

Image: Flickr user Kevin Lawver

As Scott Donaton argued in a recent Co.Create post, other brands should learn this lesson as well as Coke has. “The challenge is clear by now,” Donaton writes, “Intrusive, interruptive, self-centered marketing no longer works the way it once did, and its effectiveness will only continue to diminish in the social age. The question is what will replace the legacy model. There’s a one-word answer: stories.” Story is the answer for two reasons, both of them backed by compelling science. First, because people are naturally greedy for stories, they have a unique ability to seize and rivet our attention. Second, stories aren’t just fun escapism--they have an almost spooky ability to mold our thinking and behavior. In this post, I’ll describe the science behind the attention-seizing power of stories, leaving their molding power for a follow-up post.

Brands play in an intensely competitive attention economy. The problem isn’t just that attention is a woefully scarce resource relative to demand, it’s that it’s also shattered and scattered around. We can’t blame our smart phones or other modern technologies for our short attention spans. The human mind is a wanderer by nature. The daydream is the mind’s default state. Whenever the mind doesn’t have something really important to do, it gets bored and wanders off into la-la land. Studies show that we spend about half of our waking hours--1/3 of our lives on earth--spinning fantasies. We have about two-thousand of these a day (!), with an average duration of fourteen seconds. In other words, our minds are simply flitting all over the place all the time.

So this is the most fundamental challenge we face in the attention economy: how do we pin down the wandering mind? How do we override the natural tendency for a mind to skip away from whatever we are showing it? By telling stories. In normal life, we spin about one-hundred daydreams per waking hour. But when absorbed in a good story--when we watch a show like Breaking Bad or read a novel like The Hunger Games--we experience approximately zero daydreams per hour. Our hyper minds go still and they pay close attention, often for hours on end. This is really very impressive. What it means is that story acts like a drug that reliably lulls us into an altered state of consciousness.

Image: Flickr user The New Institute

To illustrate why, let’s run a thought experiment. Imagine you are living in Paris in 1896, and you’ve been invited to see something that you’ve heard about but never seen. You walk out of the bright hot streets into a cool, dark theater, and there’s a white screen that opens up in a dazzling explosion of light--like a window thrown open on an alternative universe. You are watching one of the first films screenings in the world. And what you see through the magic window is terrifying. The film is by the Lumiere brothers and it is called The Arrival of a Train. Go ahead, watch it now--but brace yourself! Arguably, this is history’s first horror film.

Don’t bother watching the whole thing. Nothing happens. A train arrives at a station and people mill around. Were you terrified? Well, according to film lore, the first audience for this film was so terrified that they shot out of their seats and stampeded for the exit. They did not want to get run over by that train. Film historians believe this story of chaos in a Parisian theater is probably exaggerated. But whether true or not, the story communicates the same idea. The first movie audiences were totally unsophisticated about the illusion of film. But after more than a century of experience, we moderns are highly sophisticated about film. Movie trains don’t scare us anymore.

But not so fast. Consider this trailer for the horror film Paranormal Activity 3. What’s happening here? These people aren’t idiots. This isn’t their first film. They know the blood isn’t real. They know there are no ghosts or monsters in the theater. They know everything they are seeing is just light flickering on a two-dimensional background. So why are they treating fake things as real? Neuroscience of brains on fiction gives us a clue. If you slide a person into an FMRI machine that watches the brain while the brain watches a story, you’ll find something interesting--the brain doesn’t look like a spectator, it looks more like a participant in the action. When Clint Eastwood is angry on screen, the viewers’ brains look angry too; when the scene is sad, the viewers’ brains also look sad.

“We” know the story is fake, but that doesn’t stop the unconscious parts of the brain from processing it like real. That’s why the audience for a horror film cringes in their chairs, screams for help, and balls up to protect their vital organs. That’s why our hearts race when the hero of a story is cornered--why we weep over the fate of a pretend pet like Old Yeller. Stories powerfully hook and hold human attention because, at a brain level, whatever is happening in a story is happening to us and not just them.

But this all leads to a bigger question. Most of us think of stories as a way to pleasantly while away our leisure time. Is there any evidence that story is actually effective in influencing us--in modifying our thinking and behavior? Yes. Lots. That’s the subject of my next post.

Jonathan Gottschall is the author The Storytelling Animal: How Stories Make Us Human, published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. His work has been featured in the New York Times Magazine, Scientific American, and the Chronicle of Higher Education, among others.
Read the second post in the series: Infecting An Audience: Why Great Stories Spread.

[Image: Flickr user Jamie McCaffrey]

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32 Comments

  • Laura Ward

    I love the campfire header photo. Just as we are captivated by fire, so are we captivated by a good story. If you want a good audiobook regarding story look up Clarissa Pinkola Estes.

  • aschambers

    We definitely agree with this perspective. Since 1989, Root has been leveraging this storytelling philosophy combined with visuals (visual storytelling). This has been providing powerful tools to help Fortune 2000 businesses help everyone in their organization create a common mental model of where the business is today, where it needs to go in the future and how each individual contributes to that journey. By telling it as a story and using visuals to support, it leaves little room for subjectivity and drives powerful results for organizations. Here's an example of how it benefited Chiquita - http://www.rootinc.com/our-wor...

  • Reader1

    ???? I don't know WTF this writer is trying to say. When I read his writing it was one distraction after the other. I'll give him a "U" for "Unclear."

  • Mike

    This article is so convoluted the author himself should first learn the lesson he is trying to convey before he preaches it.

  • Dom Eden

    Great article, thanks Jonathan! Always love reading what CoCreate comes out with.

    For those who are interested, I'm in the process of writing a 3-part series on how small companies can start using storytelling effectively too - you can read the first part here: http://blog.gadaboutingstudios.... Feedback would be much appreciated!

  • M. Goldsmith

    I hate to be a buzz kill and point out the obvious, but wouldn't your post have been more effective had you told it as a story?

  • Karleen

    Interesting. As a clinical shrink I give folks the task of watching a film and practice of consciously watching tensions and breathing and relax while watching a film to help the emotional part of us know that it is separate and can eventually be separate from life's dramas

  • The Wrong Agency

    I've only got to watch my son bouncing up and down whilst watching some exciting point in a movie, to realise that he is no longer a spectator, but a participant in the drama.

    I'm looking forward to part 2

  • Robert Mighall

    Good stuff. There's a lot of chatter about storytelling, with marketeers and communication folk finally waking up to its power. But not always much rigour in how the term is applied, or this power explained. Here it is, with real insights, and in Jonathan's book too. I found it really useful in writing my own, Only Connect. Look forward to the next post.

  • Jay Golden

    Great piece! And thanks for a human way of talking about the neuroscience. Was that bit from the Princeton/Hasson study or elsewhere, I'm looking for more studies on this. Thank you!

  • Miriam Tassone

    Thank you - looking forward to part two. I would love to see any more docos or articles on this as I am writing a white paper on it at the moment. My company (www.belearning.com.au) have spent the last eight years using storytelling in organisation and have four phd studies done on the effect of that with very interesting results. I love that the REAL and PROFOUND affect of storytelling is being recognised more fully. I think in Western Society where theatre and film has been sidelined as entertainment we need reminding more and more about how to use storytelling's latent power as a tool to bring us together to connect us to purpose rather than just to drink more coca cola....there is a whole body of work on the power of catharsis (that this article talks about) and the ability of catharsis to numb us, to control us or to make us more creative depending on how it is used.....ok signing off now before I write an essay

  • catrinawalters40

    up to I looked at the
    paycheck 4 $8724, I did not believe ...that...my mom in-law was like they say
    realy earning money part-time at their laptop.. there moms best frend started
    doing this for only about 12 months and a short time ago paid the mortgage on
    there home and bourt a top of the range BMW M3. image source www.Pro67.ℂom

  • macwriter

    Anyone want to see a documentary on storytelling for brands? Let me know if interested, as I'm writing and producing it now. Thnx.

    Kevin